Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be defined as injury to the brain caused due to a blow or jolt to the head resulting in damage to the brain cells and blood vessels. The injury that occurs at the moment of impact is known as primary injury. Primary injury can involve the entire brain or a specific lobe of the brain. Traumatic brain injury is one of the leading causes of mortality and disability among many young individuals in most countries. Common causes of traumatic brain injuries are car or motorcycle crashes, sports injury, and assaults. Injuries can range from mild to concussions to severe or permanent brain damage. Traumatic brain injuries can be categorized as mild, moderate, and severe brain injuries. In case of mild injury, the patient experiences a brief loss of consciousness. However, moderate and severe types involve long-time unconsciousness. In children, traumatic brain injury may not be encountered at the initial stage but can emerge in later development stages of life, which may lead to chronic behavior problems and social isolation.
The number of deaths from traumatic brain injury stood at 14 to 30 per 100,000 of the population each year in the U.S. As estimated by the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC), every day 153 people die from traumatic brain injuries. According to a Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) report in 2013, 2.8 million TBI related emergency department visits, hospitalization, and deaths occurred in the U.S. Diagnosis of TBI is majorly done by detailed neurological examination; brain imaging such as CT scan, MRI, and positron emission tomography (PET) scan; cognitive evaluation by neuropsychologist; etc. Mild traumatic injuries require no treatment other than rest and over-the-counter pain relievers to treat mild headaches. However, severe brain injury requires medications that include general anesthetics, antiviral drugs, anti-parkinsonism agents, atypical antipsychotic agents, etc.
Extensive R&D activities and large number of clinical trials conducted worldwide in order to develop effective treatment therapies are projected to drive the traumatic brain injury drugs market during the forecast period. In addition, entry of some new molecular therapies such progesterone (BHR-100), cell therapy, and stem cell are projected to drive the market. However, low government funding for TBI research and delayed diagnosis are projected to restrain the traumatic brain injury drugs market.
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The global traumatic brain injury drugs market can be segmented based on disease, drug, route of administration, distribution channel, and region. Based on disease, the traumatic brain injury drugs market can be categorized into concussion, diffuse axonal injury (DAI), and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH). In terms of drug, the traumatic brain injury drugs market can be categorized into osmotic diuretics, anticonvulsants, electrolytes, barbiturates, calcium channel blocker, stimulants, dopamine agonist, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antispasticity medications, and N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor antagonists (NMDA antagonists). Based on route of administration, the global traumatic brain injury drugs market can be categorized into oral and injectable. The oral route is the preferred route of administration because of ease of administration. In terms of distribution channel, the global market can be segmented into online pharmacies, retail pharmacies, and hospital pharmacies.
Based on region, the global traumatic brain injury drugs market can be divided into North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. North America is expected to hold a significant share of global market from 2018 to 2026 due to higher mortality accounting for 30% of all deaths related brain injury. In addition, several pipeline agents in treatment of TBI are expected to fuel the global brain injury drugs market in the near future. Moreover, higher incidence of brain injury in regions such as Asia Pacific, North America, and Western Europe is expected to further drive the global brain injury drugs market.
Key players operating in the traumatic brain injury drugs market are Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Sanofi, Novartis AG, Pfizer Inc., Akorn pharmaceuticals, Arbor Pharmaceuticals, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Invagen pharms, Lupin, Apotex Inc., Mylan N.V., and Avanir Pharmaceuticals Inc. among others.
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